Measurement and Geometry

1.0 Students understand perimeter and area:

1.1 Measure the area of rectangular shapes by using appropriate units, such as square centimeter (cm^{2}), square meter (m^{2}), square kilometer (km^{2}), square inch (in^{2}), square yard (yd^{2}), or square mile (mi^{2}).

1.2 Recognize that rectangles that have the same area can have different perimeters.

1.3 Understand that rectangles that have the same perimeter can have different areas.
1.4 Understand and use formulas to solve problems involving perimeters and areas
of rectangles and squares. Use those formulas to find the areas of more complex
figures by dividing the figures into basic shapes.
2.0 Students use twodimensional coordinate grids to represent points and graph lines and simple figures:

2.1 Draw the points corresponding to linear relationships on graph paper (e.g., draw 10 points on the graph of the equation y = 3x and connect them by using a straight line).
• Predicting and Ploting Lines on a Graph

2.2 Understand that the length of a horizontal line segment equals the difference of the
xcoordinates.

2.3 Understand that the length of a vertical line segment equals the difference of the ycoordinates.

3.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of plane and solid geometric objects and use this knowledge to show relationships and solve problems:

3.1 Identify lines that are parallel and perpendicular.

3.2 Identify the radius and diameter of a circle.
• Circles  Radius, Diameter, and Circumference

3.3 Identify congruent figures.

3.4 Identify figures that have bilateral and rotational symmetry.

3.5 Know the definitions of a right angle, an acute angle, and an obtuse angle. Understand that 90°, 180°, 270°, and 360° are associated, respectively, with 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, and full turns.
• Studying of Angles
• Experiment: Angles and Degrees

3.6 Visualize, describe, and make models of geometric solids (e.g., prisms, pyramids) in terms of the number and shape of faces, edges, and vertices; interpret twodimensional representations of threedimensional objects; and draw patterns (of faces) for a solid that, when cut and folded, will make a model of the solid.
• Manipulating the Volume on a Rectangular Prism

3.7 Know the definitions of different triangles (e.g., equilateral, isosceles, scalene) and identify their attributes.

3.8 Know the definition of different quadrilaterals (e.g., rhombus, square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid).
